Discrimination of black pen inks on writing documents using visible reflectance spectroscopy and PLS-DA. Zacca II ; Bruno R. Trindade II ; and Jez W. The analysis of inks is performed to verify the occurrence of forgery in documents. Spectroscopic methods are attractive techniques for use in forensic document analysis as they, in most instances, preserve the integrity of the document. In this work, it is proposed a discrimination method of black pen inks of different types, brands and models for application in cursive handwriting. The method was validated with an independent test set and with a blind test. The bias in the results was corrected for the outlier identification. The method has proved to be accurate and robust regarding the handwriting of different individuals and capable of identifying the pen type, brand and pen model in a forensic case.
Ronald N. Morris
Ink, as well. Our services, and handwriting experts. In reaching a particularly challenging forensic.
When most people think of ink analysis they, think that it is a destructive That is not completely accurate. Forensic document examiners have used the same technique for nondestructive ink differentiation examinations for many years. Watermarks are also useful in establishing the date when the paper was made.
All rights reserved. Basic concepts. Closed and open systems. Relative and absolute age. Mass invariance. Sen and Ghosh. Ball point pen ink dating. Composition of ball point pen inks. Aging ink evaluation. Methods of ink age evaluation based on the evolution of resins over time. E-mail address: qmeg telefonica. Methods of ink age evaluation based on the study of volatile compounds.
Questioned document examination
Questioned material may consist of identification cards, contracts, wills, titles and deeds, seals, stamps, bank checks, handwritten correspondence, machine-generated documents such as those from photocopiers, fax machines, and printers , currency and electronic documents. In some circumstances, graffiti and digital signatures may be examined; however, the client should be aware that the examination of these types of evidence can be problematic.
Even documents that were shredded or burned may prove useful if reconstructed. In digital documents, evidence could even be culled from the metadata of electronic signature files, providing information such as who the author is and when the document was written.
There’s more to a piece of paper than meets the eye – and paper analysis can find it. This specialized investigative process extracts historical and physical evidence from documents, photographs, art prints, books, and other paper-based objects. These tools are used, alone or in combination, to characterize the properties of paper in a number of ways. For example, a qualitative analysis shows what materials are in the paper, fiber, ink; quantitative analysis measures how much.
Chemical analysis evaluates composition and pH; physical analysis measures gloss, strength, color. Organic analysis detects carbon-based traces of plants and organisms; while inorganic analysis identifies mineral evidence in pigment and ink. Each of these approaches provides a set of facts about an artifact’s condition, age or origins. The method of choice for any given situation is determined by several factors, including: the objectives of the investigator authentication, preservation, personal curiosity ; the relative value of the paper historically, legally, personally ; and whether the information gained from destructive testing will outweigh the loss of material samples.
The authenticity of the mysterious Vinland Map was debated for decades. In , a scrap of map parchment was analyzed by a destructive, organic method radiocarbon dating.
Most enquires regarding signature and handwriting comparisons typically fall into these two categories:. This is not asking who wrote it but instead, was it all written by only one person? The methodology of a signature or handwriting comparison depends on the following factors which influence what documents are required to endeavour to form a definite conclusion:.
It is also normally essential to compare handwriting to handwriting and NOT handwriting to a signature as many writers will depart from the normal letter designs of their handwriting to write their signatures. A sufficient quantity of specimen is required for a reasonably conclusive result. It is not possible to precisely advise on this quantity, as it will depend on the skill of the writer and the exclusiveness and complexity of their writing.
Questioned Documents – Forensic Technical Aspects solvent analysis are significantly improved, reliable and accurate ink dating may become a reality in.
Yes, with certain limitations. We can determine the first date of commercial availability of the ink used to prepare any handwritten or handprinted material. The type of ink does not preclude this examination. If the initial date of commercial availability is more recent than the supposed date of the examined writing, then the document is not what it purports. We cannot, however, through this technique, determine the specific or even approximate date of preparation. Other techniques can determine the approximate date of preparation of handwritten entries.
Additionally, it is possible to measure the quantity of several semi- volatile components that are present in ink. As the ink ages these components decrease and thus the approximate age of the writing can be determined.
Signature & Handwriting Analysis
The chemical analysis of writing and printing inks, as well as paper, can be invaluable when trying to prove whether a document is fraudulent. Ink dating is a highly specialized forensic examination and considered to be one of the most accurate and reliable methods to help determine the age of a document. An ink formulation can be identified to a specific manufacturer to ascertain the first date of commercial availability. If an entry is dated in , but the ink was not available until then the document could not have been created in
Global Forensic Services, LLC is a forensic laboratory, as well as a consulting Ink Age, Ink Dating, Handwriting, Art Dating & Questioned Document Expert to determine if proper procedures were followed and accurate results were given.
The present invention relates to an ink and to a method for measuring the age of the ink that has been deposited on a writing surface, and is particularly adapted for analyzing signatures and writings to determine the age of the signature or writing and the age of the signature or writing relative to other signatures or writings. The present invention is particularly applicable to investigations that are intended to combat fraud, including medical fraud, insurance fraud, and fraud involving other time dated documents such as wills, trusts, deeds and legal agreements.
The aging of ink is an important factor in the forensic examination of documents. The ability to accurately time date writings and signatures deposited on a document, or set of documents, can help determine the authenticity of the document or documents and detect fraud, such as, for example, where a document contains several time dated entries which indicate a long span of time, but the writer falsified the document by making the entries all at one time or at a fewer number of sittings than indicated by the dates written on the document.
Aging characteristics of ink are described in a book by R. Brunelle and R. Thomas of Springfield, Ill. The age of ink deposited on a document may be detected by spectroscopy, as suggested by V.
Global Forensic Services, LLC
There are typically two different forensic methods for ink dating. With this method the forensic analysis determines the components in the ink, compares them against a library of standards and then allows an opinion regarding the first date that particular ink was manufactured commercially available. The dynamic approach is very useful in determining if a pen ink was placed on a document on its purported date, i.
There are only a handful of forensic scientists capable of performing these tests and laboratories equipped with the proper tools. The proposed tests are minimally invasive, the latter two involving the placement of pinhole perforations in the text, paper and signatures on the Original Document.
Also, knowledge of the first production date for each type of ink or certain not adequately separate the dyes in the ink for accurate densitometer readings, repeat forensic scientists, document examiners and attorneys throughout the world.
In forensic science , questioned document examination QDE is the examination of documents potentially disputed in a court of law. Its primary purpose is to provide evidence about a suspicious or questionable document using scientific processes and methods. Evidence might include alterations, the chain of possession, damage to the document, forgery, origin, authenticity, or other questions that come up when a document is challenged in court.
Many QD examinations involve a comparison of the questioned document, or components of the document, to a set of known standards. The most common type of examination involves handwriting wherein the examiner tries to address concerns about potential authorship. A document examiner is often asked to determine if a questioned item originated from the same source as the known item s , then present their opinion on the matter in court as an expert witness. Other common tasks include determining what has happened to a document, determining when a document was produced, or deciphering information on the document that has been obscured, obliterated, or erased.
The discipline is known by many names including ‘forensic document examination’, ‘document examination’, ‘ diplomatics ‘, ‘handwriting examination’, or sometimes ‘handwriting analysis’, although the latter term is not often used as it may be confused with graphology. Likewise a forensic document examiner FDE is not to be confused with a graphologist, and vice versa. Many FDEs receive extensive training in all of the aspects of the discipline.
As a result, they are competent to address a wide variety of questions about document evidence. However, this “broad specialization” approach has not been universally adopted. In such cases, the former term refers to examiners who focus on non-handwriting examination types while the latter refers to those trained exclusively to do handwriting examinations.
Even in places where the more general meaning is common, such as North America or Australia, there are many individuals who have specialized training only in relatively limited areas.
Document Analysis: A Summary of Possibilities – Expert Article
When there’s a suspect in a crime and the evidence includes a handwritten note, investigators may call in handwriting experts to see if there’s a match. In some cases, it might be the one piece of evidence that gets a suspect charged and eventually convicted. But what if it’s a false match? How exactly do experts go about analyzing someone’s handwriting? In the world of forensic analysis, which includes crime scene investigation , DNA testing , fiber analysis, fingerprint analysis, voice identification and narcotics analysis, to name just a few of the disciplines, handwriting analysis fits into the area of questioned documents.
Handwriting analysis is a tedious and methodical process that relies on extensive knowledge of the way people form letters, which characteristics of letter formation are unique and the physiological processes behind writing – the ways in which a person’s fine-motor skills can affect his or her handwriting and leave clues about the author’s identity.
Several ink dating methods based on solvents analysis using gas category, has been found reliable enough to be applied to the actual forensic examination [2.
There are four major approaches each approach is a group of methods used for dating inks on documents:. Other ink entries are not necessary for comparison. Aginsky has developed the SET as a result of many years of research of the ink aging methodology developed and published by Dr. Antonio A. Cantu in the s. The second ink dating approach analyzes the chemical composition of inks on a contested document with the aim to determine whether these inks as well as other materials used to produce the document — paper, inkjet printing ink, toner, stamp pad ink, etc.
Such intra-comparisons of inks may reveal that the questioned entries were not written contemporaneously with the other entries in the file document. Comparison of the contested document to other similar documents from the same time frame — If other similar documents from the same source and pertinent time frame are available for comparison with the contested document, then:.